page 36 vocabulary:
-directed instruction: grounded primarily in behavorist learningtheory and the information-processing branch of the cognitive learning theories.
-constructivist or inquiry-based learning-evolved from other branches of thinking in cognitive learningtheory.
-objectives and constrictivists- teaching/learning model based on cognitive laerning theory; holds that learners should generate their own knowlege through experiences basted activities tather than being taught it by teachers.
Theoretical and procedural foundations of Technology Intergration
-Different learning needs call for different teaching methods, successful technology integration depends on well-planned lessons with resources and teaching strategies and classroom conditions to support them.
Three factors that create the enlightened approach
  1. Learning theory bases: it is important to begin by looking at two different, competing theories of how learning should take place in the classroom and examine the various kinds of integration strategies.
  2. Planning model: the “people” issues involved in integration, there are five-phases planning model and how teachers should use it to plan technology based lessons.
  3. Essential conditions: The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) states that technology- based strategies work best when optimal conditions support them.
Learning Theories as Bases for Integration Models
Directed and Constructivist Instruction Models: How two worlds Evolved
-Before 1980 there was very little question about the appropriate instructional role for technology. There are three acceptable roles of computers:
1. computers as tools to support learning- EX. Word processing or calculations
2. tutors to deliver instruction-EX. Drill and practice or tutorials
3. “tutees”- EX. Learning to program computers
As technology evolves the way it is used and taught in the classroom must change.
Two different views on teaching and learning according to Hirsch:
1. Directed instruction: is grounded primarily in behaviorist learning theory and the information processing branch of the cognitive learning theories.
2. constructivist (inquiry-based learning): evolved from other branches of thinking in cognitive learning theory.
ENDS page 36
Theoretical Foundations of Directed and Constuctivist Models (beginning on page 36)
There are two learning theories which have differing views about human knowledge:
Objectivists- Believe learning occurs when information is given to people and those people store the information in their memory.
Constructivists- Believe learning occurs when a person is involved in a specific experience which creates their "own unique version of the knowledge, colored by background, experiences, and aptitudes."
Learning theories underlying objectivist methods
Behavorist theories: B.F. Skinner
Skinner believed that learning occured through stimulus-response chains and that a person's past would shape what they would do in the future. Skinner believed in what is called contingencies of reinforcement which are used to shape a desired response. There are three kinds:
- positive reinforcement; rewarding someone in order to gain a desired behavior
-negative reinforcement; taking away priveleges in order to gain a desired behavior
-punishment; decreases unwanted behaviors
Today, classroom management procedures are based on Skinner's work and his reinforcement principles.
Information-processing theories
This theory views the human mind as a computer. Based on this theory, there are three kinds of memory that the brain contains.
-The sensory register gets information through the five senses. This information is either lost or is transmitted to the short-term memory (STM). The STM will keep the information for about 5-20 seconds. The information will only be passed on to the long-term meory (LTM) if it is practiced and retained.
Many teaching practices have developed using this theory such as introducing interesting material that catches the interest of students, or giving instructions with key points that help the students relate the information to what they already know. Ends page 40
Social Activism Theory: John Dewey

  • Learning is individual growth that comes about through social experiences.
  • Growth is fostered through hands-on activities connected to real-world issues and problems.
  • School curriculum should arise from students' interests and be taught as integrated topics, rather than as isolated skills.
Scaffolding Theory: Lee Vygotsky
  • Learning is cognitive development shaped by individual diffrences and the influence of culture.
  • Adults (experts) and children (novices) perceive the world differently. The difference between them is the Zone of Proximal Development.
  • Adults support learning through scaffolding, or helping children build on what they already know.
Begins Page 41
Cognitive Behavorial Theory:
Robert Gagne created guidelines for conditions of learning including learning hierarchies and nine events of instruction. Types of learned behaviors are intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, verbal information, physical abilities and attitudes. He believes lower level skills provide a knowledge base to learn higher level skills. Events of instruction are used to plan lesson. Learning is a building process and it is shaped by a sequence of instructional events that are appropriate for a certain type of learning. Instructional activities should be directed that support a student's learning and let you as the teacher know they have the prerequisite skills to continue progress.
System Approaches:
Instructional design models were created on the belief that learning was more effective when it is designed by a system of instruction. Many companies use this to save them time and money. It provides a set of step by step processes. It also allows a person to be self paced in learning the material. A complete learning system contains objectives, learning activities and assessments. Students should be monitored at they progress through this instructional system. Computer information of this type will help provide accurate information about a student's individual progress.
Teaching methods and technology integration strategies that reflect objectivist theories
Objectivists focus on technology integration skills for structured learning products. Objectivists use their skill to help teachers and students meet curriculum standards. Objective principles must have defined objectives and a set sequence for it to work productively.
Ends at the Bottom of page 41
Criticisms of Directed and Constructiveist Instructional Models (pg 47)
- Limitations of Directed Instructional Models
1. Breaking topics into discrete skills and teaching them in isolation from each other is directed more at basic skills than at higher level ones;
students cannot apply skills later
2. Learning is repetitive and predictable; students often find it uninteresting and irrelevant; lack of motivation leads to lower achievement and higher
dropout rates.
3. Not all topics lend themselves to directed approaches.
4. Students cannot solve novel problems or work cooperatively with others to solve problems.
- Limitations of Constructive Models
1. When students are allowed to demonstrate knowledge in varying ways, teachers cannot certify students' individual skill levels, as required by
today's accountability standards.
2. Leting students generate their own knowledge is time consuming and inefficient; students may lack prerequisite skills to handle constructivist
problem-solving environments effectively.
3. Not all topics lend themselves to constructivist approaches.
4. Despite learning being anchored in authentic problems, students may not transfer skills to real-life situations.
Enabling Integration Strategies Useful with Either Model pg 51-52
  • Integration to generate motivation to learn - Constructivists recommend the highly visual and interactive qualities of internet and multimedia resources as the basis of these strategies. Directed methods say that some students find it very motivating to learn at their own pace, in a private environment. It seems evident that appropriate integration strategies to address motivation problems depend on the needs of the student; either constructivist or directed integration strategies can be used to increase motivation to learn.
  • Integration to optimize scarce resources - Drill-and-practice programs can replace worksheets, a good distance program can offer instruction in topics for which local teachers are in short supply, and a simulation can let students repeat experiments without depleting chemical supplies or other materials.
  • Integration to remove logistical hurdles to learning - Some technology tools offer no instructional sequence or tasks but help students complete learning tasks more efficiently. Tools such as word processing programs do not teach students how to write but let students write and rewrite more quickly, without the labor of handwriting. A calculator lets students do lower level calculations so they may focus on the high-level concepts of math problems. A CD-ROM may contain only a set of pictures of sea life but lets a teacher illustrate concepts about sea creatures more quickly and easily than books.
  • Integration to develop information literacy and visual literacy skills - Students practice in using mondern methods of communicating information. Using technology to communicate visually represents Information Age skills that students will need both for higher education and in the workplace.

The Technology Integration Planning Model (TIP) pg52-62
-Gives teachers a general approach to addressing challenges involved in integrating technology into teaching
-Each phase gives a set of planning and implementation steps that help ensure technology use will be efficient and successful in meeting needs
Phase 1:Determine Relative Advantage
Teachers have to consider the benefits of using such a method compared to their current one and decide if the benefits are worthe the extra effort and cost. Will using technology to teach this subject matter help the students learn more efficiently?
Questions to ask yourself: What is the problem I am addressing? Do technology-baseed methods offer a solution with sufficient relative advantage?
Phase 2: Decide on Objectives and Assessments
Objectives should focus on outcomes that are observable and set clear expectations. After stating objectives, teachers create ways to assess how well outcomes have been accomplished.
Questions to ask yourself: What outcomes do l expect from using the new methods? What are the best ways of assessing these outcomes?
Phase 3: Design Integration Strategies
Teachers must decide if they want to integrate grouping, sequence of learning, or single-subject vs. interdisciplinary approach. Will the learning environment be directed or inquiry-based?
Questions to ask yourself: What kinds of instructional methods are needed in light of content objectives and student characteristics? How can technology best support these methods? How can I prepare students adequately to use technologies?
Phase 4: Prepare the Instructional Environment
Teachers must make sure the learning environment has all of the essential for successful technology integrations such as: hardware, time to use resources
Questions to ask yourself: What equipment, software, media,and materials will I need to carry out the instructional strategies? How should resources be arranged to support instruction and learning? What planning is required to make sure technology resources work well?
Phase 5: Evaluate and Revise Integration Strategies
Teachers review evidence on how successful the strategies and plans were in solving the problems they identified. They use this information to decide what should be changed and implemented for the next time
Ouestions to ask yourself: How well has the technology integration system worked? What could be improved to make it work better?
End pg 62
When Technology Works Best: Essential Conditions for Technology Integration: Along with setting technology standards for students, teachers, and adminstration, the ISTE also gave suggestions on how to use and get the full benefits of technology. The extent to which technology is used is determined by whether or not the school/school system have the right equiptment.
Essential Condition: A Shared Vision for Technology Integration:
-need system wide support to implement technology
-commitment from the community as well is needed, and it is usually outlined in a plan including teachers and officials
Coordinate school and district planning and involve teachers and other personnel at all levels:
-school/district plans should be coordinated with each other
-liaison/coordinator is helpful
Budget yearly amounts for technology purchases and make funding incremental:

-technology is always changing, so schools are always needing additional equipment
-technology plan should allow for upgrades
-identify specific amount
Emphasize teacher training:
-teachers must know how to use the technology to get the benefits from using it
-plan needs to include training for teachers
Match technology to curriculum needs:
-look at needs and how technology can address them
-what is being taught now and how tech. can improve the instruction that can be taught that couldn't be taught without the technology
-technology should be included to make education more efficient, exciting, and successful
Keep current and build in flexibility:
-keep up to date with changes in technology with workshops and conferences
---middle of page 64

Essential Condition: Standards and Curriculum Supports:
NETS= what is required of students in the area of technology to be able to live, learn, and work in a successful manor. The world of technology is constantly growing, so students being able to use technology to the best of their ablitiy will truly take them far in life.
-Within the classroom technology is not taught seperatly to the students.
-Therefore the technology standards and content area standards are built into one. Thus "killing two birds with one stone."
Essential Condition: Required Policies:
-Internet use policies- at study was done and among students who surf the interent 19% of them will come into contact with a predator of some sort. The United States Congress has enforced the Children's Internet Protection Act. The purpose of this act is for schools to protect the student from anything that might be harmful to them. In many schools the AUP (Acceptable Use Policy), this policy lays out all the possible risks that are displayed on the internet.
-Legal/ethical use policies- other than the AUP, schools have more policies that prevent against hackers and to prevent against viruses. The way schools prevent these illegal actions is by placing firewalls. Firewalls are very useful, but they also have problems that come along with them. One of the problems is as it filters out the the harmful material it can at times filter out material that is prefectly useful. Not only do schools have firewalls they also have virus filtering software. Also, the software companies strongly enforce their copyright laws.
-Policies to ensure equality- Schools have major responsibilities some of them are making sure that every student within the school have an equal oppurtunity to engage in technology.
-middle of page 64 to beginning of 65.

Essential Condition: Access to Hardware, Software, and Other Resources

- Schools will never have the budgets for technology that they need or want. Some examples of having available funds in using broken computers for spare parts or using donated equipment, etc.
- It is important for purchases to begin with the curriculum needs for which teachers most need technology support.
- Schools can miminize technology repair problems is users follow good usage rules and conduct maintenance procedures.
- Securing equipment is an equally important maintenance issue. Loss of equipment from vandalism and thief is a common problem in schools. Several options to deal with this problem are monitoring and alarm systems, security cabinets, and lock down systems.
Essential Condition: Trained Personnel
- Hands-on integration emphasis- Students can't learn by always listening to the teacher or watching demonstrations the need to have an opportunity to navigate through a program. The main focus should be on how to the technology resources.
- Training over time - Technology inservice must be ongoing for teachers!!
- Modeling, mentoring, and coaching - Most teachers seem to learn computer skills through colleague interaction and information sharing.
- Post training access- Teachers not only need adequate access to technology they need access after training to practice and use what they have learned.
Erica Burgess Started on page 65 and ended on page 65 near the bottom
Essential Condition: Technical Assistance
Teachers need to know what to do when something goes wrong with their computer but there should also be someone within the school system that can help the teacher with something complicated, such as: diagnostic and maintenance problems. Schools are in charge of making sure that all computer equipment is ready for teacher and student use.
Essential Condition: Appropriate Teaching and Assessment Approaches

Technology integration includes easy use of technology like power points to more difficult task like the students doing research on the internet. All are appropriate depending on the instruction needed.
It is critical to match the teaching strategy with the assessment strategy. A grading rubric can measure student success. You would not use a written test if asking the student to create a web page.

Technology integration strategies based on each model (starting pg 47 right hand column)- based on Directed Teaching Models
  • INTEGRATION TO REMEDY IDENTIFIED WEAKNESS OR SKILL DEFICITS - constructivists say that students should learn prerequisite skills as they see the need for them in a group or individual project. When the absence of prerequisite skills presents a barrier to higher level learning or to passing tests, directed instruction usually is the most efficient way of providing them.
  • INTEGRATION TO PROMOTE SKILL FLUENCY OR AUTOMATICITY - some prerequisite skills must be applied quickly and without conscious effort in order to be most useful. Students need rapid recall and performance of a wide range of skills throughout the curriculum, including simple math facts, grammar and usage rules, and spelling. Some students acquire automaticity through repeated use of the skills in practical situations. Others acquire it more efficiently through isolated practice. Drill-and-practice, instructional games, and sometimes simulation courseware can provide practice tailored to individual skill needs and learning pace.
  • INTEGRATION TO SUPPORT EFFICIENT, SELF-PACED LEARNING - when students are self-motivated and have the ability to structure their own learning, the most desirable method is often the one that offers the fastest and most efficient path. Sometimes these students are interested in topics not being covered in class or for which there is no instructor available. Directed instruction for these students can frequently be supported by well-designed self-instructional tutorials and self-paced distance learning workshops and courses.
  • INTEGRATION TO SUPPORT SELF-PACED REVIEW OF CONCEPTS - when students cover a number of topics over time, they usually need a review prior to taking a test to help them remember and consolidate concepts. Sometimes students are absent when in-class instruction was given or need additional time going over the material to understand and remember it. In these situations, drill-and-practice and tutorial software materials are a good way to provide these kinds of self-paced reviews.
ends left hand column on page 49
Technology integration strategies based on constructivist models-
  • INTEGRATION TO FOSTER CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING AND METACOGNITION- students need to be able to solve complex, novel problems as they occur. Teachers want to encourage students' self-awareness of their own learning strategies.
  • INTEGRATION TO HELP BUILD MENTAL MODELS AND INCREASE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER- Often students will learn a skills in isolation and do not know how to apply these skills to real life situations. Problem-solving skills in highly visual formats allow students to build rich mental models of problems to be solved. Supporters believe that if we teach students in these highly visual, problem-solving environments , it will help to ensure that knowledge will transfer to higher order skills.
  • INTEGRATION TO FOSTER GROUP COOPERATION- Evidence shows that when students work cooperatively they tend to be more motivated to complete the task with the use of technology. Students need to be able to work with others to solve problems and create products.
  • INTEGRATION TO ALLOW FOR MULTIPLE AND DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENCES- teachers can allow students multiple ways to learn and to demonstrate achievement. It helps students to see that they can help each other accomplish tasks and can learn from each other as well as from the teacher or media.
Technology integration strategies to support either model (directed teaching or constructivist)
  • INTEGRATION TO GENERATE MOTIVATION TO LEARN- Due to past failures, at-risk students need more than usual motivation. Students need to see the relevance of new concepts and skills to their lives. Also students need to be active rather than passive learners.
  • INTEGRATION TO OPTIMIZE SCARCE PERSONNEL AND MATERIALS RESOURCES- Schools have limited budgets so they have to save money on consumable products. Teachers are short in supplies in some areas, so this will help with this problem.
  • INTEGRATION TO REMOVE LOGISTICAL HURDLES TO LEARNING- These tools support directed instruction by removing or reducing logistical hurdles in learning. An example would be in a word processing document, the program does not teach the students how to write , but allows the students to write and rewrite more quickly, without the labor of handwriting. Another example would be a calculator allows the students to do lower-level math problems so they can focus on the more difficult problems while saving time and energy.
  • INTEGRATION TO DEVELOP INFORMATION LITERACY AND VISUAL LITERACY SKILLS- This allows students to learn modern methods of communicating information. They also learn how to analyze the quality of visual presentations. These are essential for higher education and in the workplace as well.
Technology integration strategies based on Contructivist Models